CCIE Routing and Switching v5.0 Official Cert Guide, Volume 1

Cisco Press
Narbik Kocharians / Peter Paluch / Wendell Odom  
Total pages
August 2014
Related Titles

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CCIE Routing and Switching v5.0 Official Cert Guide, Volume 1
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The first of two volumes, this is Cisco's official, complete self-study resource for the LAN switching, IP networking, and IGP routing areas of the new CCIE Routing and Switching 5.0 exam. Designed for experienced networking professionals, it covers every objective in these areas concisely and logically, with extensive teaching features designed to help develop retention and deeper insight.


  • Straight from Cisco: official assessment, review, and practice for the new CCIE Routing and Switching v5.0 exam
  • First of two volumes: Fully covers the LAN switching, IP networking, and IGP routing areas of the new CCIE Routing and Switching v5.0 exam
  • Extensively updated to reflect the latest exam topics
  • DVD contains realistic practice tests as well as a new Study Plan Template to help students organize and optimize study time
  • Extensive, proven features help students review more efficiently
  • New study features include innovative Part Reviews with mind mapping exercises that help students consolidate their knowledge of concepts from multiple chapters

New to this Edition

Fully updated to reflect the new CCIE Routing and Switching v5.0 exam.

Table of Contents

Introduction xxiv

Part I LAN Switching

Chapter 1 Ethernet Basics 3

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 3

Foundation Topics 8

Ethernet Layer 1: Wiring, Speed, and Duplex 8

RJ-45 Pinouts and Category 5 Wiring 8

Autonegotiation, Speed, and Duplex 9


 Collision Domains and Switch Buffering 10

Basic Switch Port Configuration 11

Ethernet Layer 2: Framing and Addressing 14

Types of Ethernet Addresses 16

Ethernet Address Formats 17

Protocol Types and the 802.3 Length Field 18

Switching and Bridging Logic 19


Core Concepts of SPAN, RSPAN, and ERSPAN 23

Restrictions and Conditions 24

Basic SPAN Configuration 26

Complex SPAN Configuration 26

RSPAN Configuration 26

ERSPAN Configuration 27

Virtual Switch System 28

Virtual Switching System 29

VSS Active and VSS Standby Switch 30

Virtual Switch Link 30

Multichassis EtherChannel (MEC) 31

Basic VSS Configuration 31

VSS Verification Procedures 35


Foundation Summary 41

Memory Builders 44

Fill In Key Tables from Memory 44

Definitions 44

Further Reading 45

Chapter 2 Virtual LANs and VLAN Trunking 47

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 47

Foundation Topics 51

Virtual LANs 51

VLAN Configuration 51

 Using VLAN Database Mode to Create VLANs 52

 Using Configuration Mode to Put Interfaces into VLANs 55

 Using Configuration Mode to Create VLANs 56

 Modifying the Operational State of VLANs 57

Private VLANs 60

VLAN Trunking: ISL and 802.1Q 69

ISL and 802.1Q Concepts 69

ISL and 802.1Q Configuration 71

 Allowed, Active, and Pruned VLANs 76

 Trunk Configuration Compatibility 76

Configuring Trunking on Routers 77

802.1Q-in-Q Tunneling 79

VLAN Trunking Protocol 83

VTP Process and Revision Numbers 86

VTP Configuration 89

 Normal-Range and Extended-Range VLANs 94

Storing VLAN Configuration 94

Configuring PPPoE 96

Foundation Summary 99

Memory Builders 101

Fill In Key Tables from Memory 101

Definitions 101

Further Reading 101

Chapter 3 Spanning Tree Protocol 103

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 103

Foundation Topics 107

802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol and Improvements 107

Choosing Which Ports Forward: Choosing Root Ports and Designated Ports 109

 Electing a Root Switch 110

 Determining the Root Port 111

 Determining the Designated Port 113

Converging to a New STP Topology 115

 Topology Change Notification and Updating the CAM 117

 Transitioning from Blocking to Forwarding 119

Per-VLAN Spanning Tree and STP over Trunks 119

STP Configuration and Analysis 124

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol 128

New Port Roles, States and Types, and New Link Types 128

Changes to BPDU Format and Handling 132

Proposal/Agreement Process in RSTP 133

Topology Change Handling in RSTP 136

Rapid Per-VLAN Spanning Tree Plus (RPVST+) 137

Multiple Spanning Trees: IEEE 802.1s 137

MST Principles of Operation 138

Interoperability Between MST and Other STP Versions 141

MST Configuration 144

Protecting and Optimizing STP 148

PortFast Ports 148

Root Guard, BPDU Guard, and BPDU Filter: Protecting Access Ports 149

Protecting Against Unidirectional Link Issues 151

Configuring and Troubleshooting EtherChannels 154

Load Balancing Across Port-Channels 154

Port-Channel Discovery and Configuration 157

Troubleshooting Complex Layer 2 Issues 161

Layer 2 Troubleshooting Process 162

Layer 2 Protocol Troubleshooting and Commands 163

 Troubleshooting Using Cisco Discovery Protocol 163

 Troubleshooting Using Link Layer Discovery Protocol 165

 Troubleshooting Using Basic Interface Statistics 167

Troubleshooting Spanning Tree Protocol 170

 Troubleshooting Trunking 171

 Troubleshooting VTP 172

 Troubleshooting EtherChannels 174

Approaches to Resolving Layer 2 Issues 175

Foundation Summary 177

Memory Builders 179

Fill in Key Tables from Memory 179

Definitions 179

Further Reading 179

Part II IP Networking

Chapter 4 IP Addressing 183

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 183

Foundation Topics 187

IP Operation 187

TCP Operation 187

UDP Operation 188

IP Addressing and Subnetting 188

IP Addressing and Subnetting Review 188

 Subnetting a Classful Network Number 189

 Comments on Classless Addressing 191

Subnetting Math 192

 Dissecting the Component Parts of an IP Address 192

 Finding Subnet Numbers and Valid Range of IP Addresses–Binary 193

 Decimal Shortcuts to Find the Subnet Number and Valid Range of IP Addresses 194

 Determining All Subnets of a Network–Binary 196

 Determining All Subnets of a Network–Decimal 198

VLSM Subnet Allocation 200

Route Summarization Concepts 201

 Finding Inclusive Summary Routes–Binary 202

 Finding Inclusive Summary Routes–Decimal 203

 Finding Exclusive Summary Routes–Binary 204

CIDR, Private Addresses, and NAT 205

Classless Interdomain Routing 206

Private Addressing 207

Network Address Translation 207

 Static NAT 209

 Dynamic NAT Without PAT 210

 Overloading NAT with Port Address Translation 211

 Dynamic NAT and PAT Configuration 212

IPv6 214

IPv6 Address Format 215

Network Prefix 215

IPv6 Address Types 216

Address Management and Assignment 216

 Static Configuration 217

 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 217

 Stateful DHCPv6 217

 Stateless DHCP 218

IPv6 Transition Technologies 218

 Dual Stack 218

 Tunneling 219

 Translation 220

Foundation Summary 221

Memory Builders 225

Fill in Key Tables from Memory 225

Definitions 225

Further Reading 225

Chapter 5 IP Services 227

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 227

Foundation Topics 232

ARP, Proxy ARP, Reverse ARP, BOOTP, and DHCP 232

ARP and Proxy ARP 232


DHCP 234

HSRP, VRRP, and GLBP 236

Network Time Protocol 240

SNMP 241

SNMP Protocol Messages 243


SNMP Security 245

Syslog 245

Web Cache Communication Protocol 246

Implementing the Cisco IOS IP Service Level Agreement (IP SLA) Feature 249

Implementing NetFlow 250

Implementing Router IP Traffic Export 252

Implementing Cisco IOS Embedded Event Manager 253

Implementing Remote Monitoring 254

Implementing and Using FTP on a Router 255

Implementing a TFTP Server on a Router 256

Implementing Secure Copy Protocol 257

Implementing HTTP and HTTPS Access 257

Implementing Telnet Access 258

Implementing SSH Access 258

Foundation Summary 259

Memory Builders 264

Fill In Key Tables from Memory 264

Definitions 264

Further Reading 264

Part III IP IGP Routing

Chapter 6 IP Forwarding (Routing) 267

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 267

Foundation Topics 271

IP Forwarding 271

Process Switching, Fast Switching, and Cisco Express Forwarding 272

Load Sharing with CEF and Related Issues 282

Multilayer Switching 286

MLS Logic 286

Using Routed Ports and Port-channels with MLS 287

MLS Configuration 291

Policy Routing 296

Routing Protocol Changes and Migration 299

Planning the Migration Strategy 300

Activating New IGP While Keeping the Current IGP Intact 300

Verifying New IGP Adjacencies and Working Database Contents 301

Deactivating Current IGP 301

Removing New IGP’s Temporary Settings 303

Specifics of Distance-Vector Protocols in IGP Migration 303

Foundation Summary 309

Memory Builders 310

Fill In Key Tables from Memory 310

Definitions 310

Further Reading 310

Chapter 7 RIPv2 and RIPng 313

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 313

Foundation Topics 316

Introduction to Dynamic Routing 316

RIPv2 Basics 318

RIPv2 Convergence and Loop Prevention 320

Converged Steady-State Operation 327

Triggered (Flash) Updates and Poisoned Routes 328

RIPv2 Convergence When Routing Updates Cease 331

Convergence Extras 334

RIPv2 Configuration 334

Enabling RIPv2 and the Effects of Autosummarization 335

RIPv2 Authentication 337

RIPv2 Next-Hop Feature and Split Horizon 338

RIPv2 Offset Lists 338

Route Filtering with Distribute Lists and Prefix Lists 338

RIPng for IPv6 339

Foundation Summary 342

Memory Builders 345

Definitions 345

Further Reading 345

Chapter 8 EIGRP 347

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 347

Foundation Topics 356

EIGRP Basics and Evolution 356

EIGRP Roots: Interior Gateway Routing Protocol 357

Moving from IGRP to Enhanced IGRP 358

EIGRP Metrics, Packets, and Adjacencies 360

EIGRP Classic Metrics 360

 Bandwidth Metric Component 361

 Delay Metric Component 361

 Reliability Metric Component 362

 Load Metric Component 362

 MTU Metric Component 363

 Hop Count Metric Component 363

 Calculating the Composite Metric 363

EIGRP Wide Metrics 364

Tweaking Interface Metrics to Influence Path Selection 368

EIGRP Packet Format 368

EIGRP Packets 371

 EIGRP Packets in Action 371

 Hello Packets 372

 Acknowledgment Packets 372

 Update Packets 373

 Query Packet 374

 Reply Packets 374

 SIA-Query and SIA-Reply Packets 374

Reliable Transport Protocol 374

Router Adjacencies 376

Diffusing Update Algorithm 380

Topology Table 380

Computed, Reported, and Feasible Distances, and Feasibility Condition 384

Local and Diffusing Computations in EIGRP 391


Stuck-In-Active State 402

EIGRP Named Mode 410

Address Family Section 414

Per-AF-Interface Configuration Section 415

Per-AF-Topology Configuration Section 416

Additional and Advanced EIGRP Features 417

Router ID 417

Unequal-Cost Load Balancing 420

Add-Path Support 421

Stub Routing 423

Route Summarization 427

Passive Interfaces 431

Graceful Shutdown 432

Securing EIGRP with Authentication 432

Default Routing Using EIGRP 435

Split Horizon 436

EIGRP Over the ToP 437

EIGRP Logging and Reporting 443

EIGRP Route Filtering 443

EIGRP Offset Lists 444

Clearing the IP Routing Table 444

Foundation Summary 445

Memory Builders 450

Fill In Key Tables from Memory 450

Definitions 450

Further Reading 450

Chapter 9 OSPF 453

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 453

Foundation Topics 460

OSPF Database Exchange 460

OSPF Router IDs 460

Becoming Neighbors, Exchanging Databases, and Becoming Adjacent 461

 OSPF Neighbor States 462

 Becoming Neighbors: The Hello Process 464

 Transmitting LSA Headers to Neighbors 466

 Database Description Exchange: Master/Slave Relationship 466

 Requesting, Getting, and Acknowledging LSAs 468

Designated Routers on LANs 469

 Designated Router Optimization on LANs 470

 DR Election on LANs 471

Designated Routers on WANs and OSPF Network Types 472

 Caveats Regarding OSPF Network Types over NBMA Networks 474

 Example of OSPF Network Types and NBMA 474

SPF Calculation 479

Steady-State Operation 480

OSPF Design and LSAs 480

OSPF Design Terms 480

OSPF Path Selection Process 482

LSA Types 482

 LSA Types 1 and 2 484

 LSA Type 3 and Inter-Area Costs 488

 LSA Types 4 and 5, and External Route Types 1 and 2 492

 OSPF Design in Light of LSA Types 496

Stubby Areas 496

OSPF Path Choices That Do Not Use Cost 502

 Choosing the Best Type of Path 502

 Best-Path Side Effects of ABR Loop Prevention 502

OSPF Configuration 505

OSPF Costs and Clearing the OSPF Process 507

 Alternatives to the OSPF network Command 510

OSPF Filtering 510

 Filtering Routes Using the distribute-list Command 511

 OSPF ABR LSA Type 3 Filtering 513

 Filtering Type 3 LSAs with the area range Command 514

Virtual Link Configuration 515

Configuring Classic OSPF Authentication 517

Configuring Extended Cryptographic OSPF Authentication 520

Protecting OSPF Routers with TTL Security Check 522

Tuning OSPF Performance 523

 Tuning the SPF Scheduling with SPF Throttling 524

 Tuning the LSA Origination with LSA Throttling 526

 Incremental SPF 527

 OSPFv2 Prefix Suppression 528

 OSPF Stub Router Configuration 529

 OSPF Graceful Restart 530

 OSPF Graceful Shutdown 532

OSPFv3 533

Differences Between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 533

Virtual Links, Address Summarization, and Other OSPFv3 Features 534

OSPFv3 LSA Types 534

OSPFv3 in NBMA Networks 536

Configuring OSPFv3 over Frame Relay 537

Enabling and Configuring OSPFv3 537

OSPFv3 Authentication and Encryption 546

OSPFv3 Address Family Support 548

OSPFv3 Prefix Suppression 552

OSPFv3 Graceful Shutdown 552

Foundation Summary 553

Memory Builders 560

Fill in Key Tables from Memory 560

Definitions 560

Further Reading 561

Chapter 10 IS-IS 563

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 563

Foundation Topics 571

OSI Network Layer and Addressing 572

Levels of Routing in OSI Networks 576

IS-IS Metrics, Levels, and Adjacencies 577

IS-IS Packet Types 579

Hello Packets 579

Link State PDUs 580

Complete and Partial Sequence Numbers PDUs 585

IS-IS Operation over Different Network Types 586

IS-IS Operation over Point-to-Point Links 587

IS-IS Operation over Broadcast Links 592

Areas in IS-IS 598

Authentication in IS-IS 608

IPv6 Support in IS-IS 610

Configuring IS-IS 613

Foundation Summary 625

Memory Builders 629

Fill In Key Tables from Memory 630

Definitions 630

Further Reading 630

Chapter 11 IGP Route Redistribution, Route Summarization, Default Routing, and Troubleshooting 633

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 633

Foundation Topics 638

Route Maps, Prefix Lists, and Administrative Distance 638

Configuring Route Maps with the route-map Command 638

 Route Map match Commands for Route Redistribution 640

 Route Map set Commands for Route Redistribution 641

IP Prefix Lists 641

Administrative Distance 644

Route Redistribution 645

Mechanics of the redistribute Command 645

 Redistribution Using Default Settings 646

 Setting Metrics, Metric Types, and Tags 649

Redistributing a Subset of Routes Using a Route Map 650

Mutual Redistribution at Multiple Routers 654

 Preventing Suboptimal Routes by Setting the Administrative Distance 656

 Preventing Suboptimal Routes by Using Route Tags 659

 Using Metrics and Metric Types to Influence Redistributed Routes 661

Route Summarization 663

EIGRP Route Summarization 664

OSPF Route Summarization 665

Default Routes 665

Using Static Routes to, with redistribute static 667

Using the default-information originate Command 669

Using the ip default-network Command 670

Using Route Summarization to Create Default Routes 671

Performance Routing (PfR) 672

Performance Routing Operational Phases 673

Performance Routing Concepts 674

Authentication 674

Performance Routing Operational Roles 675

 Master Controller (MC) 675

 Border Router 676

PfR Basic Configuration 677

 Configuration of the Master Controller 677

 Configuration of the Border Router 681

 Task Completion on R3 682

Troubleshooting Complex Layer 3 Issues 683

Layer 3 Troubleshooting Process 684

Layer 3 Protocol Troubleshooting and Commands 686

 IP Routing Processes 686

Approaches to Resolving Layer 3 Issues 695

Foundation Summary 696

Memory Builders 698

Fill In Key Tables from Memory 698

Definitions 698

Further Reading 698

Part IV Final Preparation

Chapter 12 Final Preparation 701

Tools for Final Preparation 701

Pearson Cert Practice Test Engine and Questions on the CD 701

 Install the Software from the CD 701

 Activate and Download the Practice Exam 702

 Activating Other Exams 702

 Premium Edition 703

The Cisco Learning Network 703

Memory Tables 703

Chapter-Ending Review Tools 704

Suggested Plan for Final Review/Study 704

Using the Exam Engine 704

Summary 705

Part V Appendixes

Appendix A Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” Quizzes 707

Appendix B CCIE Exam Updates 713


Appendix C Decimal to Binary Conversion Table

Appendix D IP Addressing Practice

Appendix E Key Tables for CCIE Study

Appendix F Solutions for Key Tables for CCIE Study

Appendix G Study Planner




9781587143960   TOC   7/22/2014



Narbik Kocharians, CCIE No. 12410 (Routing and Switching, Security, SP), is a Triple CCIE with more than 32 years of experience in the IT industry. He has designed, implemented, and supported numerous enterprise networks. Narbik is the president of Micronics Training Inc. (, where he teaches CCIE R&S and SP boot camps.


Peter Palúch, CCIE No. 23527 (Routing and Switching), is an assistant professor, Cisco Networking Academy instructor, and instructor trainer at the Faculty of Management Science and Informatics, University of Zilina, Slovakia. Peter has cooperated in various educational activities in Slovakia and abroad, focusing on networking and Linux-based network server systems. He is also active at the Cisco Support Community, holding the Cisco Designated VIP award in LAN & WAN Routing and Switching areas since the award program inception in 2011. Upon invitation by Cisco in 2012, Peter joined two Job Task Analysis groups that assisted defining the upcoming CCIE R&S and CCNP R&S certification exam topics. Peter holds an M.Sc. degree in Applied Informatics and a doctoral degree in the area of VoIP quality degradation factors. Together with his students, Peter has started the project of implementing the EIGRP routing protocol into the Quagga open-source routing software suite, and has been driving the effort since its inception in 2013.