Building Switched Networks

Darryl P. Black  
Total pages
January 1999
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Table of Contents

(Each chapter begins with "Introduction" and concludes with "Conclusions".)



Organization of This Book.



1. Our Demands for Networking.

Key Problems Addressed.

Communication Paradigms.

Examples of How We Use Networking Today.

Today's Networks.

Tomorrow's Networking Requirements.

The Main Goal of Networking.

Incorporating Features of Phone Networks.

The Main Demands on Networking.

Critical Components of Tomorrow.

Behind the Scene Network Needs.

Existing Patterns.

Setting Expectations.

2. Our Networking Base.

Key Solutions Offered.

The Prerequisite Information Challenge.

The Chapter Two Road Map.

The ISO OSI Reference Model.

Layer 1: Physical.

Layer 2: Data Link.

Layer 3: Network.

Layer 4: Transport.

Layers 1, 2, and 3.

The Big Picture.

Twisted Pair and Fiber.

Connectionless versus Connection-Oriented.


Fast Ethernet.

Gigabit Ethernet.



Physical Topology in the LAN.

Physical Topology in the WAN.


Point-to-Point Connections and Cloud Technologies.


Frame Relay.


Important TCP/IP Concepts.

IP Addressing.

What is DHCP.


Distance-Vector and Link-State Protocols.

Routing in the LAN.

Routing in the WAN.


Setting Expectations.

3. Switching Technology.

Key Solutions Offered.

Switching Comes from the Telephone Network.

Switches Are "Designed" for the LAN or WAN.

Switch Components.

Switch Implementations.

LAN Switching.

Collision Domains and Broadcast Domains.

Switched LANs.

Types of LAN Switches.

WAN Switching.

WAN Protocols.

Types of WAN Switches.

Packet and Cell Switching Technologies.

ATM Switching.

Frame Relay Switching.

FDDI and Token Ring Switching.

Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, and Gigabit Switching.

Gigabit Ethernet and ATM.

What is a VLAN.

VLAN Creation Techniques.

VLAN Advantages.

VLAN Disadvantages.

What is Tagging?

Tag Header Organization.



Setting Expectations.

4. Multilayer Switching.

Key Solutions Offered.

Routers Can Be Traffic Bottlenecks.

Multilayer Switching in a Nutshell.

Layer-2 Switching.

Layer-3 Switching.

Layer-4 Switching.

Fast IP and NHRP.

Multiprotocol over ATM (MPOA).

Routing Combined with Connection-Oriented Services.

Label-Based Switching.

The IETF MPLS Effort.

MPLS Functional Requirements.

Important MPLS Terminology.

Key Features of MPLS.

How MPLS Works.

Label Management.

Label Assignment: Local versus Egress Control.


MPLS Challenges.

Tag Switching.

IP Navigator.


Cell Switched Routers (CSR).

IP Switching.

Setting Expectations.

5. Guaranteed Delivery.

Key Solutions Offered.

When Does Delay Matter.

What Causes Delay, Anyway.

Resource Sharing.

Overprovision, Precedence, Dedicated Resource.

The Guaranteed Reservation Paradox.

Quality of Service (QoS) Basics.

What is QoS, Anyway?

Traffic Management.

Buffer Management.

Bandwidth Management and Queues.

Traffic Management Control.

Random Early Discard (RED).

The ATM World.

ATM's Built-In QoS.

ATM Service Classes.

The IP World.

Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP).

Integrating ATM with RSVP.

Type of Service (TOS), OSPF, QOSPF, and QoS.

WinSock 2.


Setting Expectations.

6. Multicast in the Network.

Key Solutions Offered.

IP Multicast in a Nutshell.

Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP).

Distance-Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP).

Multicast Open Shortest Path First (MOSPF).

Core-Based Trees (CBT).

Protocol Independent Multicast.

Dense Mode (PIM-DM).

Sparse Mode (PIM-SM).

Multicast over ATM (MARS).

IETF Developments.

Multicast-Border Gateway Protocol (M-BGP).

Multicast Reliability.

Setting Expectations.

7. Network Policy and Services.

Key Solutions Offered.

Network Policy.

Service Level Agreements (SLAs).

Policy--The Distributed Glue That Ties Everything Together.

Network Configuration Repositories.

Next Steps for DHCP.

Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS).

An Example of RADIUS in Use.

Introducing Distributed Policy Is a Large Challenge.

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP).

Directory Enabled Networking (DEN).

Network Services.

Virtual Private Networks (VPNs).

Interactive Voice over Data Networks.

Voice over Data Challenges.

Deploying Interactive Voice over an Intranet.

Network Services Depend on Network Policy.

Real-Time Video over Data Networks.

Setting Expectations.

8. Managing Our Demands for Networking.

Key Problems Addressed.

The Basics of Management.

The Sources of Network Management Data.

Engineering Problem Solving Applied to Network Management.

Switched Networks Challenge Network Management.

Layered Management.

Hierarchical Management.

Distributed Management.

DHL Management.

Network Management Needs of Switched Networks.

Proactive versus Reactive Management.




Traffic Management.

Delivery Guarantees and Traffic Prioritization.

Traffic Optimization.

Twelve Cardinal Rules of Creating Management Solutions.

Policy-Based Network Management.

A Conceptual View of Managing Tomorrow's Switching Solutions.

Management Strives to Be End-to-End.

Preparing for New Switching Solutions.

Setting Expectations.


Networking Acronyms Used in This Book.

Index. 0201379538T04062001

Back Cover

In order to work with today's networks that handle integrated text, data, and interactive voice and video, you must possess a thorough understanding of switches and the newest technologies that make sophisticated network services possible.

Building Switched Networks provides a comprehensive, technical survey of the networking technologies that comprise the core of evolving LAN and WAN infrastructures. This book gives you essential background information, clear descriptions of relevant technologies, and an understanding of how those technologies will be employed throughout networks in the near future. In particular, the text focuses on developments that support our increasing demand for network bandwidth--multilayer switching, delivery guarantees, and multicasting--and examines performance issues, resource allocation, network policy, and network services.

Using a ground-up approach, the book begins with network demands, examines various kinds of available switches, and progresses to the state-of-the-art technologies that are quickly permeating our networking infrastructure. Specifically, you will learn about:

  • Virtual LANs and the 802.1Q and 802.1p standards
  • Layer-2, Layer-3, and Layer-4 switching
  • The emerging Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) standard
  • Quality of Service (QoS), delivery guarantees based on specified parameters, and resource management
  • Class of Service (COS) priority queuing techniques
  • IP multicast--a key technology for enabling networks to scale
  • Service Level Agreements (SLAs) that formalize service characteristics
  • Network Policy, with a discussion of Directory Enabled Networking (DEN) and the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
  • Emerging sophisticated network services made possible by the above technologies, including Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) and Voice over IP (VoIP)

Building Switched Networks then widens the scope of discussion beyond the details of these technologies to examine the demands that will be placed on networks in the future and successful management strategies for meeting those demands.



Darryl P. Black is the NMS Director for Equipe Communications Corporation, where he is in charge of developing network management solutions for a carrier-class switch. Previously, while Senior Development Manager at Nortel Networks, he built network management solutions for carrier and enterprise networks. Mr. Black earned his B.S. in Mathematics from the University of Vermont and holds an M.S. from Northeastern University, where he studied engineering management.