Language and Reading Disabilities: Pearson New International Edition

Alan G. Kamhi / Hugh W. Catts  
Total pages
August 2013
Related Titles

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Language and Reading Disabilities: Pearson New International Edition
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For courses in speech and language intervention, language disorders, reading disorders and special education.


Written by leading experts, this third edition maintains a strong clinical focus and thorough coverage of the identification, assessment, and treatment of reading and writing disorders.


Fully updated, this edition includes a new chapter on reading comprehension, a new chapter on spelling, and consolidated information on defining and classifying reading disabilities.  New sections feature the latest on comprehension development, RTI, auditory processing deficits, literate vocabulary, and cognitive linguistic skills in writing. Offering the varied perspective of well-known contributors, the text successfully keeps pace with the rapid changes in the knowledge of language and reading disabilities and provides readers with the most up-to-date advances in the field.


Contributions from leading researchers provide an up-to-date perspective from experts in the field.


·   A unique research-based classification system helps readers understand language and reading disabilities, as well as the best techniques available to treat students with these special needs.


·   Numerous suggestions for intervention present research that is easy-to-translate into clinical practice.


·   A chapter on reading development (Chapter 2) focuses on the importance of early exposure to literacy, compares stage theories of reading development to current self-teaching mechanisms, and tackles the development of reading comprehension.

New to this Edition

New To This Edition:


·   A new chapter on reading comprehension (Chapter 6) tackles definitional issues that affect the way reading is assessed and taught. Additionally, a model of comprehension is presented to help readers develop appropriate measures of understanding.


·   A new chapter on spelling (Chapter 8) covers the innovative 4-block model of spelling while also providing numerous suggestions to help readers assess and treat students with spelling difficulties.


·   Consolidated information on defining and classifying reading disabilities (Chapter 3) streamlines content to make the text even more accessible.


·   Fully revised to include updates such as:

A new section on comprehension development (Chapter 2)

 New information about RTI and subgroups of poor readers (Chapter 3)

 New information about auditory processing deficits and poor comprehenders (Chapter 4)

A new section about RTI and poor responders (Chapter 5)

New information about developing literate vocabulary and complex syntactic structures (Chapter 7)

Additional information about how to write genre specific texts (Chapter 9)

 New information on cognitive linguistic skills in writing (Chapter 10).

Table of Contents



Contributors and Affiliations  

CHAPTER 1: Language and Reading: Convergences and Divergences  

Alan G. Kamhi and Hugh W. Catts


Defining Language  






Defining Reading  

Models of Spoken and Written Language Comprehension  

Comprehending Spoken and Written Language  

 Perceptual Analyses  

 Word Recognition  

 Discourse-Level Processes  

Differences between Spoken and Written Language  

 Physical Differences  

 Situational Differences  

 Functional Differences  

 Form Differences  

 Vocabulary Differences  

 Grammatical Differences  

 Processing Differences  

Basic Factors in Reading and Language Development  




CHAPTER 2: Reading Development  

Alan G. Kamhi and Hugh W. Catts


Emergent Literacy Period (Birth—Kindergarten)  

 Joint Book Reading  

 Learning about Print  


The Development of Word Recognition Skills  

 Logographic Stage  

 Alphabetic Stage  

 Orthographic Stage and Automatic Word Recognition  

 Problems with Stage Theories of Word Recognition  

 The Self-Teaching Hypothesis  

 Evaluating the Self-Teaching Hypothesis

The Development of Reading Comprehension  

 Misconceptions about Comprehension Development






CHAPTER 3: Defining and Classifying Reading Disabilities  

Hugh W. Catts, Alan G. Kamhi, and Suzanne A. Adlof


Historical Basis of Reading Disabilities  

 Early Reports  


 Johnson and Myklebust  

 The Modern Era  



 Gender Differences

Defining Reading Disability  

 Exclusionary Factors  

 IDA Definition   

 Dyslexia as a Specific Learning Disability

 Problems in Word Recognition and Spelling

 Deficits in Phonological Processing

 Unexpected Underachievement

 Secondary Consequences

Classifying Dyslexia and Other Language-Based Reading Difficulties

 Subtypes Based on the Simple View of Reading  

 Classification Studies

 Other Subtyping Methods Based on Word Recognition Skills

 Combining Subtypes in Research and Practice

 Clinical Implications


CHAPTER 4: Causes of Reading Disabilities  

Hugh W. Catts,  alan G. Kamhi, and Suzanne A. Adlof


Extrinsic Causes of Reading Disabilities  

 Early Literacy Experience  

 Reading Instruction  

 Matthew Effects  

Intrinsic Causes of Reading Disabilities  

 Genetic Basis  

 Neurological Basis  

 Visually-Based Deficits  

 Auditory Processing Deficits  

 Attention-Based Deficits  

 Language-Based Deficits  



CHAPTER 5:  Assessment and Instruction for Phonemic Awareness and Word Recognition Skills  

Stephanie Al Otaiba,  Marcia L.Kosanovich, and Joseph K. Torgeson


Development and Assessment of Phonemic Awareness  

 The Importance of Phonemic Awareness in Learning to Read  

 Purposes for Assessment of Phonemic Awareness  

 Procedures and Measures Used to Assess Phonemic Awareness  

Development and Assessment of Word Recognition  

 Issues in the Assessment of Word Recognition  

 Commonly Used Measures of Word Recognition Ability  

Code-focused Classroom Instruction and More Intensive Small-Group Supplemental Intervention

 What Do We Know about Effective Code-focused Classroom Instruction?

 What Do We Know about Tier 1 Instructional Strategies that Maximize Reading Outcomes?

 What Do We Know about Training Code-focused Skills through Supplemental Interventions?

 What Do We Know about Poor Responders?

Issues for Future Research and Development



CHAPTER 6:  Spelling Assessment and Intervention: A Multiple Linguistic Approach to   Improving Literacy Outcomes

Kenn Apel, Julie J. Masterson, and Danielle Brimo


The Language Basis of Spelling

 Phonological Knowledge

 Orthographic Pattern Knowledge

 Morphologic Knowledge

 Semantic Knowledge

 Mental Graphemic Representations

Relation between Spelling and Other Literacy Skills

Developmental Spelling Theories

Multi-linguistic Approach to Assessment

 Determining Goals

 Measuring Progress

Multi-Linguistic Approach to Instruction and Intervention

 Prescriptive, Multi-Linguistic Intervention

 Improving Orthographic Pattern Knowledge 

 Other Orthographic Pattern Knowledge Strategies

 Improving Morphological Knowledge

Supplementing Language Knowledge Strategies with Word-Specific Learning Tactics

Multi-linguistic Instruction at the Classroom Level




CHAPTER 7: Perspectives on Assessing and Improving Reading Comprehension

Alan G. Kamhi


Defining comprehension

 Reader Abilities

 Text Factors

 Task Factors

 A Model of Comprehension

Assessing Reading Comprehension

Comprehension Instruction

 Strategy Instruction

 Content Goals and Disciplinary Literacy

Summary and Conclusions


CHAPTER 8:  Assessing and Remediating Text Comprehension Problems

Carol E. Westby


Cognitive and Linguistic Underpinnings for Literacy

 Linguistic Skills for Literacy

 Cognitive Understanding for Text Comprehension

Assessing Language and Cognitive Skills for Text Comprehension  

 Assessing Literate Language Style (Text Microstructures)  

 Assessing Knowledge of Narrative Content Schemata and Text Grammar Schemata (Text Macrostructures)

 Assessing Recognition/Comprehension of Content Schemata

 Assessing ability to organize schema content and text grammars

Facilitating Text Comprehension  

 Developing Linguistic Microstructures

 Developing Macrostructure Schemas



Children’s Materials  

Appendix A: Books to Develop Connectives/Complex Clauses

Appendix B: Cinderella Stories  



CHAPTER 9:  Learning to Write  

Cheryl M. Scott


A Framework for Writing  


Emergent and Early School Writing: Age 4-8 Years

Learning to Write Genre-Specific Text: Ages 9+

 Learning the Macrostructure of Writing: Genre Development

 Interpretation of Genre Studies: Effects of Task and Curriculum

 Learning the Microstructure of Writing:  Sentence Grammar

 Learning the Process of Writing

How Well Do Children Write: Incidence of Writing Disorder and National Assessments

Writing, Reading, and Oral Language




CHAPTER 10: Developing Knowledge and Skills for Writing

Carol E. Westby



Developing Writing Foundations

 Production/Transcription Skills

 Cognitive/Linguistic Skills

 Exploring the post-modern genre

 Expository texts

 Syntactic Structures


Developing Writing Processes

 Strategies for Generative Ideas and Planning

 Strategies for Production

 Strategies for Revising


Children’s Books

Appendix 10.1