Campbell Biology in Focus, Global Edition

Series
Pearson
Author
Lisa A Urry / Michael L. Cain / Steven A. Wasserman / Peter V. Minorsky / Jane B. Reece  
Publisher
Pearson
Cover
Softcover
Edition
2
Language
English
Total pages
1088
Pub.-date
June 2016
ISBN13
9781292109589
ISBN
1292109580
Related Titles



Description

For introductory biology course for science majors

In 930 text pages, Campbell Biology in Focus, Second Edition, emphasizes the essential content, concepts, and scientific skills needed for success in the college introductory course for biology majors.

 

Focus.  Practice.  Engage.  

Campbell Biology in Focus is the best-selling “short” textbook for the introductory college biology course for science majors. Every unit takes an approach to streamlining the material that best fits the needs of instructors, based on surveys, curriculum initiatives, reviews, discussions with hundreds of biology professors, careful analyses of course syllabi, and the Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education report. The Second Edition builds on the Campbell hallmark standards of accuracy, clarity, and pedagogical innovation, going beyond this foundation to help students make connections visually across chapters, interpret real data from research, and synthesize their knowledge. The accompanying digital resources include new, mobile-friendly tools that help instructors teach challenging topics better than ever before; integrate the eText with videos and animations; and allow students to test, learn, and retest until they achieve mastery of the content.

 

MasteringBiology® not included. Students, if MasteringBiology is a recommended/mandatory component of the course, please ask your instructor for the correct ISBN and course ID. MasteringBiology should only be purchased when required by an instructor. Instructors, contact your Pearson representative for more information.


MasteringBiology is an online homework, tutorial, and assessment product designed to personalize learning and improve results. With a wide range of interactive, engaging, and assignable activities, students are encouraged to actively learn and retain tough course concepts.

Features

This title is a Pearson Global Edition. The Editorial team at Pearson has worked closely with educators around the world to include content which is especially relevant to students outside the United States.

 

 

Key Concepts and course themes:  Each chapter in the Second Edition is organized around a manageable framework of three to six Key Concepts that provide the context for supporting details, helping students distinguish the forest from the trees.

  • The carefully chosen and thoughtfully crafted content of Campbell Biology in Focus emphasizes the core content of biology. For example:
    • Chapters 2 and 3 quickly review chemistry so that students reach the cell chapters sooner. If students need more chemistry review, MasteringBiology® offers 84 assignable chemistry tutorials and activities that are automatically graded.
    • Units 1-3 give students the solid foundation in cell biology, genetics, and evolution that they need in order to understand modern biology.
    • Unit 4 tells the story of the history of life by focusing on key events in the evolution of diversity, giving students an overview of life on Earth through time in four chapters.
    • Units 5 and 6 provide carefully selected examples and a more focused perspective on the interrelationship of form and function across diverse species of plants and animals.
    • Unit 7 applies the key themes of the text, including evolution, interactions, and energy and matter, to help students understand the fundamental principles and processes of ecology.
  • Five fundamental themes that mirror the Vision and Change report and run through all areas of biology–Evolution, Organization, Information, Energy and Matter, and Interactions–are introduced in Chapter 1 and recur throughout the text. End-of-chapter questions focus on these themes to help students see the common “big ideas” that run through all of biology.
  • Evolution is the core theme of this text, introduced in Chapter 1. Every chapter has a section that focuses on evolution, highlighted by an Evolution banner. Every chapter ends with a Focus on Evolution Question. The evolutionary perspective at the core of Unit 3, Evolution, also permeates the novel approach to biological diversity taken in Unit 4, The Evolutionary History of Life.
  • A visual unit preview introduces each unit of the text, showing how the material in those chapters fits together and into the larger context of biology as a whole.

Make Connections: The Second Edition helps students make connections across biology topics.

  • NEW! Ten Make Connections Figures pull together content from different chapters and provide a visual representation of “big picture” relationships.
  • Make Connections Questions ask students to relate content in a chapter to material presented earlier in the course to help them see how the different areas of biology are connected, from molecules to organisms to ecosystems.

Scientific Inquiry Skills:  The Second Edition teaches scientific skills in every chapter and engages students in scientific inquiry, revealing “how we know what we know.”

  • NEW! Interpret the Data questions throughout the text ask students to analyze a graph, figure, or table.  These questions can be assigned in MasteringBiology.
  • Scientific Skills Exercises in every chapter of the text use real data to build key skills needed for biology, including data analysis, graphing, experimental design, and math skills. Each Scientific Skills Exercise is also available as an automatically graded assignment in MasteringBiology with answer-specific feedback for students.
  • Inquiry Figures highlight how researchers designed an experiment, interpreted their results, and drew conclusions. Each Inquiry Figure concludes with a What If? Question that asks students to consider an alternative scenario.
  • Scientific Inquiry Questions in the end-of-chapter material ask students to practice scientific thinking by developing hypotheses, designing experiments, and analyzing real research data.

Active Learning and Assessment: Campbell Biology in Focus, Second Edition, provides students with multiple opportunities to deepen their understanding of biology:
In the text:

  • NEW! Synthesize Your Knowledge Questions at the end of each chapter ask students to apply their understanding of the chapter content to explain an intriguing photo.
  • NEW! QR codes at the end of every chapter give students quick access to Vocab Self-Quizzes and Practice Tests on their smartphones.
  • Throughout the chapter, students are encouraged to interact with the content as they read by answering Concept Check Questions, Make Connections Questions, Figure Legend Questions, Draw It Questions, Interpret the Data Questions and What If? Questions.
  • End-of-chapter Summary of Key Concepts Questions and Test Your Understanding Questions encourage higher-level thinking and prepare students for the kinds of questions they will see on exams. The Test Your Understanding Questions are organized into three levels based on Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge/Comprehension, Application/Analysis, and Synthesis/Evaluation. Question types include multiple choice, Draw It, Scientific Inquiry, Focus on Evolution, and Focus on a Theme (Organization, Information, Energy and Matter, or Interactions).


Carefully developed art and animations help visual learners

  • NEW! Ten Make Connections Figures pull together content from different chapters and provide a visual representation of “big picture” relationships.
  • BioFlix® 3-D Animations help students visualize biology with movie-quality animations that can be presented in class, reviewed by students on their own in the Study Area, and assigned in MasteringBiology. BioFlix Tutorials use the animations as a jumping-off point for MasteringBiology coaching exercises on tough topics.
  • In the text, selected figures are rendered in a 3-D style to help students visualize biological structures.
  • By integrating text, art, and photos, Exploring Figures help students access information efficiently.
  • Guided Tour Figures use descriptions in blue type to walk students through complex figures like an instructor would, pointing out key structures, functions, and steps of processes.
  • Visual Organizers emphasize the hierarchy of information in multi-part figures, helping students see important categories at a glance.
  • Figure Legend Questions prompt students to delve into a figure’s content to make sure they understand it.
  • Draw It Questions ask students to put pencil to paper and draw a structure, annotate a figure, or graph experimental data, deepening their understanding of the topic.
  • Summary Diagrams help students visually recall what they learned in the chapter.
  • Because text and illustrations are equally important for learning biology, the page layouts are carefully designed to place figures together with their discussions in the text.
  • PowerPoint® slides are painstakingly developed for optimum presentation in lecture halls, with enlarged editable labels. Complex figures are broken down into parts for step-by-step presentation. The slides also have links to animations and videos, enhancing the learning experience in class.

 

MasteringBiology® not included. Students, if MasteringBiology is a recommended/mandatory component of the course, please ask your instructor for the correct ISBN and course ID. MasteringBiology should only be purchased when required by an instructor. Instructors, contact your Pearson representative for more information.

 

In MasteringBiology:

  • NEW! Ready-to-Go Teaching Modules in the Instructor Resources section help instructors efficiently make use of the available teaching tools for the toughest topics. Before-class assignments, in-class activities, and after-class assignments are provided for ease of use. Instructors can incorporate active learning into their course with the suggested activity ideas and clicker questions or Learning Catalytics questions.
  • NEW! eText 2.0 integrates the text with videos, animations, Vocab Self-Quizzes, and Practice Tests in a format that can be used on smartphones, tablets, and computers.
  • NEW! Dynamic Study Modules provide students with multiple sets of questions with extensive feedback so that they can test, learn, and retest until they achieve mastery of the textbook material.
  • NEW! Optional Adaptive Follow-up Assignments are based on each student’s performance on the original MasteringBiology assignment and provide additional coaching and practice as needed.
  • NEW! Learning Catalytics allows students to use their smartphones, tablets, or laptops to respond to questions in class.
  • Hundreds of self-paced MasteringBiology tutorials provide individualized coaching with specific hints and feedback on the toughest topics in the course. For example:
    • NEW! Interpret the Data Questions ask students to analyze a graph, figure, or table.
    • NEW! Solve It Tutorials engage students in a multi-step investigation of a “mystery” or open question in which they must analyze real data.
    • NEW! HHMI Short Films are documentary-quality movies from HHMI with assignable questions.
    • NEW! Video Field Trips allow students to study ecology on virtual field trips.
    • Scientific Skills Exercises, based on the exercises in each chapter of the textbook, are available as assignable activities in MasteringBiology.
    • BioFlix® Tutorials use movie-quality 3-D animations and coaching exercises to help students master tough topics outside of class.
    • Make Connections Tutorials ask students to relate figures from two different chapters to make connections between topics covered in different parts of the course.
    • BLAST Data Analysis Tutorials teach students how to work with real data from the BLAST database.
    • Experimental Inquiry Tutorials allow students to replicate a classic biology experiment and learn the conceptual aspects of experimental design. Students can critically evaluate the experiment and make decisions about how to set up, interpret, assess, and evaluate other experiments.
    • Interpreting Data Tutorials provide students with coaching on how to read and interpret data and graphs.
    • Data Analysis Tutorials connect students with real data from online databases and guide them in analyzing and interpreting data in a controlled environment.
    • Misconception Questions address common student misconceptions related to each chapter’s content, providing feedback to students to help them correct their understanding. The instructor can see which common misconceptions are proving most challenging for the class as a whole.
    • Video Tutor Sessions walk students through tough topics with clearly explained visuals and demonstrations.
    • MasteringBiology® Virtual Labs online environment promotes critical thinking skills using virtual experiments and explorations that may be difficult to perform in a wet-lab environment due to time, cost, or safety concerns.
  • In addition, Reading Quiz Questions and over 3,000 Test Bank Questions are available for assignments.
  • Every assignment is automatically graded and entered into a gradebook. Instructors can check the gradebook to see what topics students are struggling with and then address those topics in class.

New to this Edition

In the text:

  • NEW! Synthesize Your Knowledge Questions at the end of each chapter ask students to apply their understanding of the chapter content to explain an intriguing photo.
  • NEW! QR codes at the end of every chapter give students quick access to Vocab Self-Quizzes and Practice Tests on their smartphones.

Carefully developed art and animations help visual learners

  • NEW! Ten Make Connections Figures pull together content from different chapters and provide a visual representation of “big picture” relationships.

New Content:

  • NEW! The impact of genomics across biology is explored throughout the Second Edition with examples that reveal how our ability to rapidly sequence DNA and proteins on a massive scale is transforming all areas of biology, from molecular and cell biology to phylogenetics, physiology, and ecology. Illustrative examples are distributed throughout the book.
  • NEW! The Second Edition provides increased coverage of the urgent issue of global climate change throughout the text. Starting with a new figure (Figure 1.11) and discussion in Chapter 1, and concluding with significantly expanded material on causes and effects of climate change in Chapter 43, including a new Make Connections Figure (Figure 43.28), the text explores the impact of climate change at all levels of the biological hierarchy.
  • Chapter 1: Introduction: Evolution and the Foundations of Biology: In the Second Edition, a new figure (Figure 1.8) on gene expression has been added that uses the lens cells in the eye as an example of DNA → RNA → protein and introduces the terms transcription and translation. This new figure and text equip students from the outset with an understanding of how gene sequences determine an organism’s characteristics. New text and a new photo (Figure 1.11) inform students about the effects of climate change in general, and global warming in particular, on species survival and diversity. Concept 1.3 was thoroughly revised to more realistically reflect the process of science. A new section was added on the Flexibility of the Scientific Process, accompanied by a new Figure 1.19 that depicts the more realistic and complex process of science.
  • Unit 1: Chemistry and Cells: For the Second Edition, a new table has been added to Chapter 2 detailing the elements in the human body, with an associated Interpret the Data question.  Chapter 3 includes a new section on isomers, with an accompanying figure, and ends with a new Concept 3.7, “Genomics and proteomics have transformed biological inquiry and applications,” which includes cutting-edge coverage of DNA sequencing and introduces genomics and proteomics, as well as bioinformatics. A new Make Connections Figure (Figure 3.30) entitled “Contributions of Genomics and Proteomics to Biology” provides an overview of areas in which genomics and proteomics have had significant impacts—including evolution, conservation biology, paleontology, medical science, and species interactions—with the aim of inspiring and motivating students. A striking photo of thermophilic cyanobacteria has been added to Figure 6.16 on environmental factors affecting enzyme activity. In Chapter 7, a computer model of ATP synthase has been added to Figure 7.13. The icon for this enzyme in Chapters 7 and 8 has been re-drawn to more closely represent its structure. A new Make Connections Figure (Figure 8.20, “The Working Cell”) integrates all the cellular activities covered in Chapters 3–8 in the context of a single working plant cell.
  • Unit 2: Genetics: Chapter 10 of the Second Edition includes a new section on “Crossing Over and Synapsis During Prophase I” that explains the events of prophase I in more detail, supported by new Figure 10.9, which clearly shows and describes these events. In Chapter 11, to incorporate more molecular biology into the discussion of Mendelian genetics, Figure 11.4 on alleles has been enhanced and a new Figure 11.16 on sickle-cell disease has been added. Chapter 13 includes new text and two new figures (Figures 13.29 and 13.30) covering advances in sequencing technology. Also in this chapter, a new section was added, including Figure 13.31, describing gene editing using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. In Chapter 15, the section on noncoding RNAs has been updated, and Figure 15.14 on in situ hybridization has been expanded and enhanced to help students understand this important technique. Chapter 16 includes a new Inquiry Figure (Figure 16.16) on induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). Material on embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has been significantly updated. A new Make Connections Figure (Figure 16.21), “Genomics, Cell Signaling, and Cancer,” illustrates recent research on subtypes of breast cancer, connecting content that students have learned in Chapters 5, 9, and 16. It also addresses treatment for one subtype of breast cancer as an example. In Chapter 17, the discussion of the importance of cell surface proteins in determining host range was enhanced. A new figure (Figure 17.3) was added, presenting the example of the receptor and co-receptor proteins for HIV. Coverage of the CRISPR system, as a bacterial “immune” system, was added, supported by new Figure 17.6. Coverage of recent epidemics was inserted (Ebola) or updated (H5N1). Chapter 18 has been significantly updated to reflect recent sequencing advances, including a discussion of the results of the ENCODE project, information on the bonobo genome, and use of high throughput techniques to address the problem of cancer. Regarding protein structure, the discussion of BLAST searches has been enhanced, and computer models of lysozyme and -lactalbumin have been added to support the discussion of the evolution of genes with novel functions.
  • Unit 3: Evolution: Revisions in the Second Edition aim to strengthen connections among fundamental evolutionary concepts. For example, Concept 20.5 includes new text on horizontal gene transfer among eukaryotes, reinforcing the overall discussion of how horizontal gene transfer has played an important role in the evolutionary history of life. Also in Concept 20.5, a new Scientific Skills Exercise walks students through the process of comparing and interpreting amino acid sequences to determine whether horizontal gene transfer may have occurred in certain organisms. Chapter 20 also includes more discussion of tree-thinking, as well as a new figure (Figure 20.11) that distinguishes between paraphyletic and polyphyletic taxa. New material in Chapter 21 clarifies the interplay between mutation, genetic variation, and natural selection. A new Make Connections Figure (Figure 21.17: The Sickle-Cell Allele) makes connections to chapters across the book in exploring the sickle-cell allele and its impact from the molecular and cellular levels to organisms to the evolutionary explanation for the allele’s global distribution in the human population. Other changes in the unit include new examples and figures that reinforce evolutionary concepts. For example, a new introduction to Chapter 23 tells the story of the discovery of whale fossils from the Sahara Desert, striking evidence of how organisms in the past differed from organisms living today. In Chapter 22, a new figure (Figure 22.10) has been added to support the expanded text discussion of allopolyploid speciation in Tragopogon in the Pacific Northwest. Dates have also been revised throughout the text, Table 23.1 (The Geologic Record), and figures in Chapter 23 and throughout the Second Edition to reflect the International Commission on Stratigraphy 2013 revision of the Geologic Time Scale.
  • Unit 4: The Evolutionary History of Life: The Second Edition provides expanded coverage of genomic and other molecular studies. Examples include a new figure (Figure 24.25) and section of text on the potential use and significance of CRISPRs, a new Scientific Skills Exercise in Chapter 26 on genomic data in mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal fungi, and a discussion of new research findings on gene flow between Neanderthals and modern humans. In addition, many phylogenies have been revised to reflect recent miRNA and genomic data. The unit now includes more connections to other chapters of the book. For instance, a new Make Connections question in Figure 24.4 asks students to apply material from Chapter 3 in order to explain how a membrane-like bilayer can self-assemble in a vesicle, and a new Make Connections Figure (Figure 26.14) explores the diverse structural solutions for maximizing surface area that have evolved in cells, organ systems, and whole organisms. Other changes enhance the evolutionary storyline of the unit. For example, in Chapter 26, the chapter title, Figure 26.2, Key Concept 26.2, and text in Concepts 26.1 and 26.2 all were revised to emphasize and explain that fungi are not closely related to plants, although they likely played a role in facilitating the colonization of land by plants, and that fungi possess their own novel adaptations for terrestrial life. Likewise, in Chapter 27, the discussion of the evolutionary impact of animals has been augmented, and new text and four new figures (Figures 27.12, 27.13, 27.30, 27.31) expand the coverage of molluscs, birds, and mammals. We also added new material on human evolution, including two new figures (Figures 27.34 and 27.35). Supporting our extensive revision of Chapter 27, the number of Key Concepts in this chapter has increased from five to seven.
  • Unit 5: Plant Form and Function: In the Second Edition, a new Make Connections Figure (Figure 29.10) concerning cross-kingdom mutualisms enables students to integrate what they have learned about plant mutualisms with other examples across the natural realm. A new Inquiry Figure (Figure 29.11) examines the metagenomics of soil bacteria. A discussion on mycorrhizae and plant evolution has also been added in Chapter 29. Figure 30.5 on the angiosperm life cycle is more closely integrated with the text through numbered steps. In Chapter 30, a discussion of coevolution of flowers and pollinators has been added. Also, the in-depth discussion of the development from seed to flowering plant has been expanded to include the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth, making a connection to what students learned about development in Chapter 28. The information in Concept 31.4 concerning plant defenses against disease has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect rapid advances in our understanding of plant immunity. Updated information relates to the two types of plant immunity: PAMP-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity. New Figure 31.23 highlights examples of physical, chemical, and behavioral defenses against herbivory.
  • Unit 6: Animal Form and Function: In the Second Edition, the introductory chapter of this unit (Chapter 32) has been re-envisioned, as conveyed by its new title, “The Internal Environment of Animals: Organization and Regulation.” Figures on endocrine signaling were revised to enhance conceptual understanding. This chapter also includes a new Make Connections Figure (Figure 32.3) illustrating shared and divergent solutions to fundamental challenges common to plant and animal physiology. The unit also includes a new Make Connections Figure on ion movements and gradients (Figure 37.8), which explores the fundamental role of concentration gradients in life processes ranging from osmoregulation and gas exchange to locomotion. Updates informed by current research include a new figure (Figure 33.15) and text highlighting the explosion in interest in and understanding of the microbiome. Furthermore, art styles have been revamped in multiple chapters to provide a consistent visual language that helps students focus on the key concepts being conveyed in each illustration.
  • Unit 7: Ecology: The increased emphasis throughout the Second Edition on global climate change is capped by new discussions and figures in Unit 7. Chapter 43, for example, includes a new figure on the greenhouse effect (Figure 43.26) as well as new text examining aspects of climate change other than global warming. A new section on “Biological Effects of Climate Change” includes new examples and a new Make Connections Figure on current effects of climate change (Figure 43.28). Throughout the unit, the presentation of several key topics has been revised. For example, in Chapter 40, the discussion of each of the following concepts or models was revised to standardize and clarify their meaning: life tables, per capita population growth, the meaning of “r,” exponential population growth, and logistic population growth. The discussion of species interactions in Chapter 41 was modified by grouping species interactions according to whether they have positive (+) or negative (–) effects on survival and reproduction; as a result, there is a new section on “Exploitation” (which includes predation, herbivory, and parasitism) and another new section on “Positive Interactions” (which includes mutualism and commensalism). Similarly, material throughout Chapter 42 was revised to reinforce the fact that energy flows through ecosystems whereas chemical elements cycle within ecosystems. The unit includes several new Figure Legend Questions that give students practice in actively interpreting scientific data. For instance, a question on biological magnification was added to Figure 43.22 asking students to calculate how PCB concentrations change at each step in the food web, while a new question in Figure 43.31 (a new figure on per capita ecological footprints) asks students to estimate how many people Earth could sustain if everyone used resources at the levels used in the United States. The unit also includes a new Make Connections Figure (Figure 42.12) that ties together population, community, and ecosystem processes in the arctic tundra.

 

MasteringBiology® not included. Students, if MasteringBiology is a recommended/mandatory component of the course, please ask your instructor for the correct ISBN and course ID. MasteringBiology should only be purchased when required by an instructor. Instructors, contact your Pearson representative for more information.



In MasteringBiology:

  • NEW! Ready-to-Go Teaching Modules in the Instructor Resources section help instructors efficiently make use of the available teaching tools for the toughest topics. Before-class assignments, in-class activities, and after-class assignments are provided for ease of use. Instructors can incorporate active learning into their course with the suggested activity ideas and clicker questions or Learning Catalytics questions.
  • NEW! eText 2.0 integrates the text with videos, animations, Vocab Self-Quizzes, and Practice Tests in a format that can be used on smartphones, tablets, and computers.
  • NEW! Dynamic Study Modules provide students with multiple sets of questions with extensive feedback so that they can test, learn, and retest until they achieve mastery of the textbook material.
  • NEW! Optional Adaptive Follow-up Assignments are based on each student’s performance on the original MasteringBiology assignment and provide additional coaching and practice as needed.
  • NEW! Learning Catalytics™ allows students to use their smartphones, tablets, or laptops to respond to questions in class.
  • Hundreds of self-paced MasteringBiology tutorials provide individualized coaching with specific hints and feedback on the toughest topics in the course. For example:
  • NEW! Interpret the Data Questions ask students to analyze a graph, figure, or table.
  • NEW! Solve It Tutorials engage students in a multi-step investigation of a “mystery” or open question in which they must analyze real data.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction: Evolution and the Foundations of Biology  

UNIT 1: CHEMISTRY AND CELLS

2. The Chemical Context of Life  

3. Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life

4. A Tour of the Cell

5. Membrane Transport and Cell Signaling

6. An Introduction to Metabolism

7. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

8. Photosynthesis

9. The Cell Cycle

 

UNIT 2: GENETICS

10. Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

11. Mendel and the Gene Idea

12. The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

13. The Molecular Basis of Inheritance

14. Gene Expression: From Gene to Protein

15. Regulation of Gene Expression

16. Development, Stem Cells, and Cancer

17. Viruses

18. Genomes and Their Evolution

 

UNIT 3: EVOLUTION

19. Descent with Modification

20. Phylogeny

21. The Evolution of Populations 

22. The Origin of Species

23. Broad Patterns of Evolution

 

UNIT 4: THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF LIFE

24. Early Life and the Diversification of Prokaryotes

25. The Origin and Diversification of Eukaryotes

26. The Colonization of Land

27. The Rise of Animal Diversity 

 

UNIT 5: PLANT FORM AND FUNCTION

28. Plant Structure and Growth

29. Resource Acquisition, Nutrition, and Transport in Vascular Plants

30. Reproduction and Domestication of Flowering Plants

31. Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals

 

UNIT 6: ANIMAL FORM AND FUNCTION

32. The Internal Environment of Animals: Organization and Regulation

33. Animal Nutrition

34. Circulation and Gas Exchange

35. The Immune System

36. Reproduction and Development

37. Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling

38. Nervous and Sensory Systems

39. Motor Mechanisms and Behavior

 

UNIT 7: ECOLOGY

40. Population Ecology and the Distribution of Organisms

41. Species Interactions

42. Ecosystems and Energy

43. Global Ecology and Conservation Biology